Echocardiography to predict tolerance to negative fluid balance in acute respiratory distress syndrome/acute lung injury

Jerome Allyn, Nicolas Allou, Marc Dib, Parvine Tashk, Mathieu Desmard, Guillaume Dufour, Omar Daoud, Hervé Mentec, Philippe Montravers
Journal of Critical Care 2013, 28 (6): 1006-10

PURPOSE: In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI), a conservative fluid management strategy improves lung function but could jeopardize extrapulmonary organ perfusion. The objective was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of echocardiography to predict tolerance of negative fluid balance (NFB) in patients with ARDS/ALI.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective and observational study in an adult intensive care unit of a university hospital was conducted. All hemodynamically stable patients with ARDS/ALI were included. Echocardiography was performed before NFB and again after 24 hours. Tolerance of NFB was evaluated by the presence of hypotension, acute kidney injury, or need for fluid expansion. The 2 patient groups (tolerating and not tolerating NFB) were compared.

RESULTS: Forty-five patients were included. Median age (Q1-Q3) was 58 (52-66) years, and the ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen was 205 (163-258) mm Hg. Negative fluid balance was 1950 (1200-2200) mL within 24 hours in the tolerant group. Complications of NFB were observed in 35% cases. After univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyzes, 2 criteria was independently associates with poor tolerance: mitral inflow E wave to early diastolic mitral annulus velocities ratio (E/Ea ratio; odds ratio, 2.02 [1.02-4.02]; P = .04) and weight gain (odds ratio, 1.2 [1.03-1.4]; P = .02). The area under receiver operating characteristic curves was 0.74 for E/Ea and 0.77 for weight gain.

CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of E/Ea accurately predicted tolerance of NFB in patients with ARDS/ALI.

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