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Acid-base and potassium homeostasis.

Acid-base balance and potassium disorders are often clinically linked. Importantly, acid-base disorders alter potassium transport. In general, acidosis causes decreased K(+) secretion and increased reabsorption in the collecting duct. Alkalosis has the opposite effects, often leading to hypokalemia. Potassium disorders also influence acid-base homeostasis. Potassium depletion causes increased H(+) secretion, ammoniagenesis and H-K-ATPase activity. Hyperkalemia decreases ammoniagenesis and NH4(+) transport in the thick ascending limb. Some combined potassium and acid-base disorders involve indirect factors such as aldosterone, impaired renal function, volume depletion, and diarrhea. In summary, disorders of potassium and acid-base homeostasis are mechanistically linked and clinically important.

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