A phase I/II study piloting accelerated partial breast irradiation using CT-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy in the prone position

Carmen Bergom, Phillip Prior, Kristofer Kainz, Natalya V Morrow, Ergun E Ahunbay, Alonzo Walker, X Allen Li, Julia White
Radiotherapy and Oncology 2013, 108 (2): 215-9

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: External beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (EB-aPBI) is noninvasive with broader potential applicability than aPBI using brachytherapy. However, it has inherent challenges in daily reproducibility. Image-guide radiotherapy (IGRT) can improve daily reproducibility, allowing smaller treatment margins. Our institution proposed IG-IMRT in the prone position to evaluate dose homogeneity, conformality, normal tissue avoidance, and reliable targeting for EB-aPBI. We report preliminary results and toxicity from a phase I/II study evaluating the feasibility of EB-aPBI in the prone position using IG-IMRT.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty post-menopausal women with node-negative breast cancer, excised tumors <3.0 cm, negative sentinel lymph node biopsy, and surgical clips demarcating the lumpectomy cavity underwent prone EB-aPBI using IG-IMRT on an IRB-approved phase I/II study. All patients underwent CT planning in the prone position. The lumpectomy cavity PTV represented a 2.0 cm expansion. 38.5 Gy was delivered in 10 fractions over 5 days, such that 95% of the prescribed dose covered >99% of the PTV. Dose constraints for the whole breast, lungs and heart were met.

RESULTS: The median patient age was 61.5. Mean tumor size was 1.0 cm. 35% of patients had DCIS. Median PTV was 243 cc (108-530) and median breast reference volume was 1698 cc (647-3627). Average daily shifts for IGRT were (0.6, -4.6, 1.7 mm) with standard deviations of (6.3, 6.5, 6.4mm). Acute toxicity was G1 erythema in 80%, and G2 erythema, G2 fatigue, and G2 breast pain each occurred in 1 patient. With a median follow-up of 18.9 months (12-35), 40% of patients have G1 fibrosis and 30% have G1 hyperpigmentation. 95% of patients have good to excellent cosmesis. There have been no recurrences.

CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that EB-aPBI in the prone position using IG-IMRT is well tolerated, yields good dosimetric conformality, and results in promising early toxicity profiles.

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