Outcome of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis undergoing colectomy

Sombat Treeprasertsuk, Einar Björnsson, Emmanouil Sinakos, Emma Weeding, Keith D Lindor
World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2013 August 6, 4 (3): 61-8

AIM: To study the outcomes of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) undergoing colectomy.

METHODS: We identified 193 patients with PSC and UC undergoing colectomy at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, United States), between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2008 using a computerized record system. Eighty-nine patients were excluded due to unclear diagnosis, liver transplantation prior to colectomy, age less than 18 years, inadequate follow-up data or known cases of cholangiocarcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed data from patient medical records. Clinical information, date of colectomy, preoperative and follow-up liver tests and pathological findings of the colon were reviewed. The Mayo risk score at baseline was calculated to obtain survival estimates for up to 4 years of follow-up. The primary endpoint was defined by the presence of all-cause mortality and/or liver decompensation requiring liver transplantation. All patients who did not have a clinical note on December 31, 2008 were considered as patients with an incomplete follow-up unless they reached a study endpoint (death or underwent liver transplantation) prior to that date. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards of the Mayo Clinic.

RESULTS: Of the 2441 patients with PSC observed in this period, 104 patients (4.3%) had UC and underwent colectomy and were included. The median age was 43.2 years, and 67% were male. The leading indications for colectomy were severe colonic inflammation (49%), the presence of colonic dysplasia during routine surveillance (42%) and bowel perforation (3%). Twenty-six patients were lost to follow-up after a median duration of 3.9 years. The remaining 78 patients included 52 patients (66.7%) who were followed for a median duration of 5.5 years and 26 patients (33.3%) who developed primary endpoints including death (n = 13) or underwent liver transplantation (n = 13) with a median follow up of 2.6 years. For the secondary endpoint, the liver complications within 1 mo following the colectomy were found in 9 patients (8.6%) and included worsening liver tests (n = 3), liver failure requiring liver transplantation (n = 2), acute cholangitis (n = 3) and right hepatic vein thrombosis with hepatic infarct (n = 1). A multivariate logistic analysis demonstrated that only lower platelet count and lower albumin level preoperatively were significantly associated with more primary endpoints (OR = 0.99 and 0.05 respectively).

CONCLUSION: One third of patients with PSC and UC undergoing colectomy died or underwent liver transplantation within 2.6 years. PSC patients with lower platelet counts and lower albumin levels were significantly more likely to have a poorer outcome.

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