JOURNAL ARTICLE

The cyclophilin CYP20-2 modulates the conformation of BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1, which binds the promoter of FLOWERING LOCUS D to regulate flowering in Arabidopsis

Yuanyuan Zhang, Beibei Li, Yunyuan Xu, Heng Li, Shanshan Li, Dajian Zhang, Zhiwei Mao, Siyi Guo, Chunhong Yang, Yuxiang Weng, Kang Chong
Plant Cell 2013, 25 (7): 2504-21
23897924
Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate many physiological processes during plant development, including flowering. However, little is known about the components of BR signaling that mediate flowering. Here, we report that BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1), the conformation of which is altered by a cyclophilin (CYP20-2), binds cis-elements in the FLOWERING LOCUS D (FLD) promoter to regulate flowering. Both bzr1-1D and fld-4 showed delayed flowering. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that BZR1 bound to a putative BR response cis-element and suppressed the expression of FLD. Overexpression of FLD partially rescued the late flowering of pBZR1:mBZR1(Pro234-Leu)-CFP (mx3). Yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays demonstrated that BZR1 interacts with CYP20-2. Arabidopsis thaliana CYP20-2 had greater peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity than did wheat (Triticum aestivum) CYP20-2. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed conformation changes in BZR1, dependent on interaction with CYP20-2. Due to differences in activity and substrate preference between CYP20-2 proteins from wheat and Arabidopsis, At-CYP20-2-overexpressing lines showed earlier flowering, whereas Ta CYP20-2 lines flowered later. Immunoblot and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that histone H3 trimethyl Lys4 and H3 acetylation levels were negatively correlated with the transcription of FLD (a putative histone demethylase) in various lines. Therefore, a conformational change of BZR1 mediated by CYP20-2 causes altered flowering through modulation of FLD expression.

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