Mediator release after nasal aspirin provocation supports different phenotypes in subjects with hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs

P Campo, P Ayuso, M Salas, M C Plaza, J A Cornejo-García, I Doña, M J Torres, N Blanca-López, G Canto, J-L Guéant, M Sanak, M Blanca
Allergy 2013, 68 (8): 1001-7

BACKGROUND: Multiple NSAID-induced urticaria/angioedema (MNSAID-UA) is an entity well differentiated from aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), although no detailed phenotype analysis has yet been performed. The objective was to evaluate the functional characteristics of MNSAID-UA subjects by analyzing the response to nasal lysine-aspirin challenge and measurement of nasal inflammatory mediator release compared with AERD subjects and controls.

METHODS: The study included 85 subjects with confirmed hypersensitivity to NSAIDs (≥3 episodes with >2 different NSAIDs or positive drug provocation) with either cutaneous (MNSAID-UA, n = 25) or respiratory manifestations (AERD, n = 60) and 30 tolerant controls (15 aspirin-tolerant asthmatic patients and 15 healthy controls). Nasal lavages at 0, 15, 60, and 120 min after lysine-aspirin challenge were analyzed for ECP, tryptase, PGE2 , PGD2 , LTD4 , and LTE4 .

RESULTS: Lysine nasal challenge was positive in 80% of the AERD cases but positive only in 12% of the MNSAID-UA group. MNSAID-UA subjects showed no changes in nasal ECP, whereas subjects with AERD had increased levels of ECP, with the highest peak at 15 min after challenge (P < 0.05). Tryptase levels were higher in AERD compared with MNSAID-UA and controls with the highest release of tryptase at 60 min (P < 0.05). Significant increases in PGD2 , LTD4 , and LTE4 were observed in AERD (at 60 min for PGD2 , LTD4 , and LTE4 ) but not in MNSAID-UA or control subjects (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Data support the observation that MNSAID-UA, although sharing a common response with AERD to COX inhibitors, seems to have a distinctive phenotype, based on the response to nasal challenge and the release of inflammatory mediators.

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