Albuminuria and its correlates in type 2 diabetic patients

Mehrnoosh Zakkerkish, Hajieh Bibi Shahbazian, Heshmatollah Shahbazian, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Armaghan Moravej Aleali
Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases 2013, 7 (4): 268-76

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of albuminuria and its correlates and investigate disease management for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ahvaz.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on the 350 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the Diabetes Clinic at Golestan Hospital, from October 2010 to September 2011. Demographic characteristics were recorded and height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Blood urea nitrogen and serum levels of creatinine, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and glycosylated hemoglobin A were measured in fasting blood samples. Spot urine and 24-hour urine collection were tested for albumin and kidney ultrasonography was done.

RESULTS: A total of 72 of 350 patients (20.6%) had microalbuminuria and 18 (5.1%) had macroalbuminuria. Elevated serum creatinine was seen in 6.9% and azotemia in 6.0%. In multivariable analysis, blood urea nitrogen level, glycosylated hemoglobin A, and duration of diabetes mellitus were associated with urinary albumin excretion (P = .04). A small proportion of the participants achieved optimal treatment goals for modifiable risk factors.

CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal urinary albumin excretion is seen in one-quarter of type 2 diabetic patients and a small but important number of them have azotemia. Albuminuria was found to be associated with long-term duration of diabetes mellitus, poor glucose control (revealed by high glycosylated hemoglobin A levels), and high blood urea nitrogen. Poor glycemic control may have a significant role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy in these patients.

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