Prognostic impact of serum CYFRA 21-1 in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma: a retrospective study

Akira Ono, Toshiaki Takahashi, Keita Mori, Hiroaki Akamatsu, Takehito Shukuya, Tetsuhiko Taira, Hirotsugu Kenmotsu, Tateaki Naito, Haruyasu Murakami, Takashi Nakajima, Masahiro Endo, Nobuyuki Yamamoto
BMC Cancer 2013, 13: 354

BACKGROUND: Serum CYFRA 21-1 is one of the most important serum markers in the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), especially squamous-cell carcinoma. However, it remains unknown whether pretreatment serum CYFRA 21-1 values (PCV) may also have prognostic implications in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 284 patients (pts) who were diagnosed as having advanced lung adenocarcinoma and had received initial therapy.

RESULTS: Of the study subjects, 121 pts (43%) had activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations (Mt+), while the remaining 163 pts (57%) had wild-type EGFR (Mt-). Univariate analysis identified gender (male/ female), ECOG performance status (PS) (0-1/ ≥2), PCV (<2.2 ng/ml/ ≥2.2 ng/ml), EGFR mutation status (Mt+/ Mt-), pretreatment serum CEA values (<5.0 ng/ml/ ≥5.0 ng/ml), smoking history (yes/ no) and EGFR-TKI treatment (yes/ no) as prognostic factors (p = .008, p < .0001, p < .0001, p < .0001, p = .036, p = .0012, p < .0001 respectively). Cox's multivariate regression analysis identified PCV < 2.2ng/ml as the only factor significantly associated with prolonged survival (p < .0001, hazard ratio: 0.43, 95% CI 0.31-0.59), after adjustments for PS (p < .0001), EGFR mutation status (p = .0069), date of start of initial therapy (p = .07), gender (p = .75), serum CEA level (p = .63), smoking history (p = .39) and EGFR-TKI treatment (p = .20). Furthermore, pts with Mt+ and PCV of <2.2 ng/ml had a more favorable prognosis than those with Mt+ and PCV of ≥2.2 ng/ml (MST: 67.0 vs. 21.0 months, p < .0001), and patients with Mt- and PCV of <2.2 ng/ml had a more favorable prognosis than those with Mt- and PCV of ≥2.2 ng/ml (MST: 24.1 vs. 10.2 months, p < .0001).

CONCLUSION: PCV may be a potential independent prognostic factor in both Mt+ and Mt- patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma.

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