High levels of S100A8/A9 proteins aggravate ventilator-induced lung injury via TLR4 signaling

Maria T Kuipers, Thomas Vogl, Hamid Aslami, Geartsje Jongsma, Elske van den Berg, Alexander P J Vlaar, Joris J T H Roelofs, Nicole P Juffermans, Marcus J Schultz, Tom van der Poll, Johannes Roth, Catharina W Wieland
PloS One 2013, 8 (7): e68694

BACKGROUND: Bacterial products add to mechanical ventilation in enhancing lung injury. The role of endogenous triggers of innate immunity herein is less well understood. S100A8/A9 proteins are released by phagocytes during inflammation. The present study investigates the role of S100A8/A9 proteins in ventilator-induced lung injury.

METHODS: Pulmonary S100A8/A9 levels were measured in samples obtained from patients with and without lung injury. Furthermore, wild-type and S100A9 knock-out mice, naive and with lipopolysaccharide-induced injured lungs, were randomized to 5 hours of spontaneously breathing or mechanical ventilation with low or high tidal volume (VT). In addition, healthy spontaneously breathing and high VT ventilated mice received S100A8/A9, S100A8 or vehicle intratracheal. Furthermore, the role of Toll-like receptor 4 herein was investigated.

RESULTS: S100A8/A9 protein levels were elevated in patients and mice with lung injury. S100A8/A9 levels synergistically increased upon the lipopolysaccharide/high VT MV double hit. Markers of alveolar barrier dysfunction, cytokine and chemokine levels, and histology scores were attenuated in S100A9 knockout mice undergoing the double-hit. Exogenous S100A8/A9 and S100A8 induced neutrophil influx in spontaneously breathing mice. In ventilated mice, these proteins clearly amplified inflammation: neutrophil influx, cytokine, and chemokine levels were increased compared to ventilated vehicle-treated mice. In contrast, administration of S100A8/A9 to ventilated Toll-like receptor 4 mutant mice did not augment inflammation.

CONCLUSION: S100A8/A9 proteins increase during lung injury and contribute to inflammation induced by HVT MV combined with lipopolysaccharide. In the absence of lipopolysaccharide, high levels of extracellular S100A8/A9 still amplify ventilator-induced lung injury via Toll-like receptor 4.

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