Full conversion from transfemoral to transradial approach for percutaneous coronary interventions results in a similar success rate and a rapid reduction of in-hospital cardiac and vascular major events

Vincent Dangoisse, Antoine Guédès, Laurence Gabriel, Jacques Jamart, Patrick Chenu, Baudouin Marchandise, Erwin Schroeder
EuroIntervention 2013, 9 (3): 345-52

AIMS: The transradial approach (TRA) for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) recently emerged as a safer vascular access with a similar rate of MACE but a lower success rate requiring crossover to another approach when compared to the transfemoral approach (TFA).

METHODS AND RESULTS: In our hospital the introduction of the TRA in November 2003 resulted in a progressive decline of TFA use. Over the five years of conversion to TRA, from 2002 (100% TFA) to 2007 (98% TRA), major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and all in-hospital vascular and bleeding events, related or not to vascular access, were prospectively collected to assess performances of each approach in the specific setting of PCI (percutaneous coronary interventions). Data of 1,928 TFA and 1,672 TRA for a total of 3,600 consecutive PCI procedures are reported. PCI success rate was unchanged by TRA (96.1% versus 95.3% for TFA, NS). TRA was associated with a reduction in the rate of post-PCI myocardial infarction (2.3% versus 3.6% for TFA, p=0.023) and with a significant reduction of MACE (3.8% versus 5.2% for TFA, p=0.041). TRA use was also associated with a marked reduction of blood transfusion and surgery for post-PCI bleeding (0.2% versus 1.5% for TFA, p<0.001), despite more frequent prescription of downstream glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (23.7% versus 7.4% for TFA, p<0.001). Thus, TRA resulted in a rapid and significant reduction of all major in-hospital adverse events, cardiac as well as non-cardiac, pooled in a "Net Adverse Clinical Event (NACE) index" of non-desirable events: death, myocardial infarction, stroke, urgent CABG surgery, surgery for bleeding and vascular events and blood transfusion. Such events occurred in 4.1% of TRA (n=69) as compared to 7% of TFA (n=134) (p<0.001), accounting for a 41% relative reduction of this NACE index by TRA. By multivariate analysis, TRA was related to a better in-hospital outcome (OR 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.87; p=0.005).

CONCLUSIONS: TRA for PCI provides the same success rate as TFA but significantly reduces post hoc related complications.

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