[An analysis of resistance of nosocomial infection pathogens isolated from 13 teaching hospitals in 2011]

Hong-bin Chen, Chun-jiang Zhao, Hui Wang, Bin Cao, Xiu-li Xu, Yun-zhuo Chu, Zhi-dong Hu, Chao Zhuo, Bi-jie Hu, Wen-en Liu, Kang Liao, Rong Zhang, Ji Zeng, Yong Wang, Yan-ping Luo, Zhan-wei Wang, Ying-mei Liu, Xiao Chen, Bin Tian, Dan-hong Su, Chun-mei Zhou, Ming-xiang Zou, Peng-hao Guo, Hong-wei Zhou, Yan Jin
Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine] 2013, 52 (3): 203-12

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathogen profile of nosocomial infection in China, and to survey the susceptibility rates of these pathogens to the clinical common antibiotics.

METHODS: The non-repetitive nosocomial pathogens isolated from bloodstream infection (BSI), hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) and intra-abdominal infection (IAI) and the case data were collected from 13 teaching hospitals in different areas of China and sent to a central laboratory for re-identification and susceptibility testing. The levels of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the common antibiotics were determined by agar dilution method. The data were analyzed by WHONET 5.6 software.

RESULTS: A total of 2103 clinical isolates were collected from January to December 2011, of which gram positive cocci and gram negative organisms accounted for 23.2% and 76.8% respectively. The top three pathogens of BSI were E. coli (31.0%, 243/784), K. pneumoniae (14.8%, 116/784) and S. aureus (10.6%, 83/784). The top three pathogens of HAP were A. baumanii (24.2%, 158/652), P. aeruginosa (23.0%, 150/652) and K. pneumoniae (16.4%, 107/652). The top three pathogens of IAI were E. coli (34.3%, 229/667), E. faecium (13.3%, 89/667) and K. pneumoniae (9.6%, 64/667). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS) accounted for 64.4% and 78.1% respectively. The susceptibility rates of Staphyloccus species to tigecycline, vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid were all 100%. The prevalence of MRSA in HAP was significantly higher than that in BSI or IAI. The susceptibility rates of Enterococcus species to tigecycline, teicoplanin and linezolid were all 100%. The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) was 64.3% in E. coli and 38.3% in K. pneumonia. Against Enterobacteriaceae, the most active agents were as following in order: tigecycline (92.3% - 100%) [except P.mirabilis], meropenem (87.5% - 100%), imipenem (87.5% - 100%) [except M. morganii], amikacin (87.5% - 100%), polymyxin B (75% - 100%) [except S. marcescens, P. mirabilis and M morganii], cefepime (67.8% - 100%), cefoperazone-sulbactam (66.6% - 100%), piperacillin-tazobactam (61.5% - 100%). Carbapenem-resistanct Enterobacteriaceae strains emerged. The susceptibility rates of P. aeruginosa to imipenem and meropenem were 66.2% and 72.2%, respectively. The susceptibility rates of A. baumanii to imipenem and meropenem were 27.7% and 25.9%, respectively. The most active agents against A. baumanii were polymyxin B (100%), followed by tigecycline (79.8%) and minocycline (50.4%). The susceptibility rates of P.aeruginosa to antibiotics in BSI were higher than those in HAP and IAI. Susceptibility rates of S. maltophilia to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, minocycline and levofloxacin were about 90% or above. Susceptibility rates of B. cepacia to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime and meropenem were all 100%. Several P.aeruginosa and A. baumanii strains were resistant to all tested antibiotics except polymyxin B.

CONCLUSIONS: The pathogen profile is different in different types of infection. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant A. baumanii is high, which is still a key problem of nosocomial infection. Tigecycline remains relatively high activity against gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacteria (except P. aeruginosa and P. mirabilis) in vitro.

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