Development of apple latent spherical virus-based vaccines against three tospoviruses

Ayano Taki, Noriko Yamagishi, Nobuyuki Yoshikawa
Virus Research 2013, 176 (1): 251-8
Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) is characterized by its relatively broad host range, latency in most host plants, and ability to induce gene silencing in host plants. Herein, we focus on the above characteristic of ALSV and describe our development of ALSV vector vaccines against three tospoviruses, namely, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV), and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). DNA fragments of 201 nt of three tospovirus S-RNAs (silencing suppressor (NSS) and nucleocapsid protein (N) coding regions for each tospovirus) were inserted into an ALSV-RNA2 vector to obtain six types of ALSV vector vaccines. Nicotiana benthamiana plants at the five-leaf stage were inoculated with each ALSV vector vaccine and challenged with the corresponding tospovirus species. Tospovirus-induced symptoms and tospovirus replication after challenge were significantly suppressed in plants preinoculated with all ALSV vector vaccines having the N region fragment, indicating that strong resistance was acquired after infection with ALSV vector vaccines. On the other hand, cross protection was not significant in plants preinoculated with ALSV vectors having the NSs region fragment. Similarly, inoculation with an ALSV-RNA1 vector having the N region fragment in the 3'-noncoding region, but not the NSs region fragment, induced cross protection, indicating that cross protection is via RNA silencing, not via the function of the protein derived from the N region fragment. Our approach, wherein ALSV vectors and selected target inserts are used, enables rapid establishment of ALSV vector vaccines against many pathogenic RNA viruses with known sequences.

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