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Epidemiology of pyrazinamide-resistant tuberculosis in the United States, 1999-2009.

BACKGROUND: Pyrazinamide (PZA) is essential in tuberculosis treatment. We describe the prevalence, trends, and predictors of PZA resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in the United States.

METHODS: We analyzed culture-positive MTBC cases with reported drug susceptibility tests for PZA in 38 jurisdictions routinely testing for PZA susceptibility from 1999 to 2009. National Tuberculosis Genotyping Service data for 2004-2009 were used to distinguish M. tuberculosis from Mycobacterium bovis and determine phylogenetic lineage.

RESULTS: Overall 2.7% (2167/79 321) of MTBC cases had PZA resistance, increasing annually from 2.0% to 3.3% during 1999-2009 (P < .001), largely because of an increase in PZA monoresistance. PZA-monoresistant MTBC (vs drug-susceptible) was associated with an age of 0-24 years (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR],1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-1.71), Hispanic ethnicity (aPR, 3.52; 95% CI, 2.96-4.18), human immunodeficiency virus infection (aPR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.15-1.77), extrapulmonary disease (aPR, 3.02; 95% CI, 2.60-3.52), and normal chest radiograph (aPR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.63-2.16) and was inversely associated with Asian (aPR, 0.59; 95% CI, .47-.73) and black (aPR, 0.37; 95% CI, .29-.49) race. Among multidrug-resistant (MDR) cases, 38.0% were PZA-resistant; PZA resistance in MDR MTBC was associated with female sex (aPR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.08-1.46) and previous tuberculosis diagnosis (aPR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.16-1.62). Of 28 080 cases with genotyping data, 925 (3.3%) had PZA resistance; 465 of 925 (50.3%) were M. bovis. In non-MDR M. tuberculosis cases, PZA resistance was higher in the Indo-Oceanic than the East Asian lineage (2.2% vs 0.9%, respectively; aPR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.53-3.36), but in MDR cases it was lower in the Indo-Oceanic lineage (22.0% vs 43.4%, respectively; aPR, 0.54; 95% CI, .32-.90).

CONCLUSIONS: Specific human and mycobacterial characteristics were associated with PZA-resistant MTBC, reflecting both specific subgroups of the population and phylogenetic lineages of the mycobacteria.

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