Buccal bone formation after flapless extraction: a randomized, controlled clinical trial comparing recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2/absorbable collagen carrier and collagen sponge alone

Angela M Coomes, Brian L Mealey, Guy Huynh-Ba, Concepcion Barboza-Arguello, William S Moore, David L Cochran
Journal of Periodontology 2014, 85 (4): 525-35

BACKGROUND: Flapless extraction of teeth allows for undisturbed preservation of the nearby periosteum and a source of osteoprogenitor cells. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) has been used for different bone augmentation purposes with great osteoinductive capacity. The aim of this study is to compare the bone regenerative ability of rhBMP-2 on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier to a collagen sponge (CS) alone in extraction sites with ≥50% buccal dehiscence.

METHODS: Thirty-nine patients requiring extraction of a hopeless tooth with ≥50% buccal dehiscence were enrolled. After flapless extraction and randomization, either rhBMP-2/ACS carrier or CS alone was placed in the extraction site. After extraction, a baseline cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan was obtained of the site, and a similar scan was obtained 5 months postoperatively. Medical imaging and viewing software were used to compare the baseline and 5-month postoperative images of the study site and assess ridge width measurements, vertical height changes, and buccal plate regeneration.

RESULTS: Radiographically, CBCT analysis showed that with ≥50% of buccal bone destruction, rhBMP-2/ACS was able to regenerate a portion of the lost buccal plate, maintain theoretical ridge dimensions, and allow for implant placement 5 months after extraction. The test group performed significantly (P <0.05) better in regard to clinical buccal plate regeneration (4.75 versus 1.85 mm), clinical ridge width at 5 months (6.0 versus 4.62 mm), and radiographic ridge width at 3 mm from the alveolar crest (6.17 versus 4.48 mm) after molar exclusion. There was also significantly (P <0.05) less remaining buccal dehiscence, both clinically (6.81 versus 10.0 mm) and radiographically (3.42 versus 5.16 mm), at 5 months in the test group. Significantly (P <0.05) more implants were placed in the test group without the need for additional augmentation. The mean loss in vertical ridge height (lingual/palatal) was less in the test sites but was not significantly (P = 0.514) different between the test and control groups (0.39 versus 0.64 mm).

CONCLUSIONS: rhBMP-2/ACS compared to CS alone used in flapless extraction sites with a buccal dehiscence is able to regenerate lost buccal plate, maintain theoretical ridge dimensions, and allow for implant placement 5 months later.

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