JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Rigid nasal endoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of epistaxis.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Epistaxis is one of the common symptoms encountered in the Otorhinolaryngology department. Many times the cause for epistaxis is not found on anterior and posterior rhinoscopy. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of rigid nasal endoscope in the diagnosis and treatment of epistaxis, where normal anterior and posterior rhinoscopy did not reveal any specific finding.

METHODS: Fifty patients with epistaxis were studied using rigid nasal endoscope under local anaesthesia. Patients who were above 15 years with nasal bleeding and who were willing for rigid nasal endoscopy were included in the study. Patients less than 15 years were not included in the study because nasal endoscopy was difficult in them under local anaesthesia. Only those patients in whom, the cause for epistaxis could not be made out on anterior and posterior rhinoscopy were chosen for the study, this was done in order to remove the bias for nasal endoscopy.

RESULTS: The use of the nasal endoscope allowed diagnosis of bleeding points and treating them directly. Epistaxis was more in male patients especially in the 3rd and after the 5th decade. On endoscopic examination,the bleeding points were identified as coming from the crevices of the lateral nasal wall, posterior spur on the septum, posterior deviation of the septum with ulcer, congested polyps, enlarged and congested adenoids, scabs or crusts in the crevices of the lateral nasal wall and angiofibroma. Endoscope also helps in the treatment of epistaxis, which includes endoscopic selective nasal packing using gelfoam, endoscopic cautery or diathermy and endoscopic polypectomy. Other patients with adenoids, scabs and crusts and angiofibroma were managed on their merits.

INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: Nasal endoscopy helps not only in the localisation of the bleeding point but also in the treatment of those bleeding areas that are situated in the posterior and lateral part of the nose.

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