Bronchial artery embolization to control hemoptysis: comparison of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and polyvinyl alcohol particles

Sungmin Woo, Chang Jin Yoon, Jin Wook Chung, Sung-Gwon Kang, Hwan Jun Jae, Hyo-Cheol Kim, Nak Jong Seong, Young-Joo Kim, Young-Nam Woo
Radiology 2013, 269 (2): 594-602

PURPOSE: To retrospectively compare safety and effectiveness of embolic agents polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles versus n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for bronchial artery embolization (BAE) for control of hemoptysis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approved this retrospective study; informed consent was waived. From January 2005 to December 2008, 406 patients (242 men, 164 women; age range, 6-92 years) with major hemoptysis underwent BAE by using PVA particles (n = 293) or NBCA (n = 113). Technical and clinical success, complications, hemoptysis-free survival rates, and causes of recurrent hemoptysis were compared between PVA and NBCA groups. The differences in hemoptysis-free survival rates were assessed between subgroups stratified to underlying diseases. The predictive factor for recurrent hemoptysis was identified with Cox proportional hazard regression model.

RESULTS: Technical success was achieved in 93.9% (275 of 293) and 96.5% (109 of 113) of patients for PVA and NBCA, respectively (P = .463); clinical success was achieved in 92.2% (270 of 293) and 96.5% (109 of 113) of patients for PVA and NBCA, respectively (P = .180). Overall and major complication rates were not statistically different (overall complication rates: 34.1% for PVA, 31.0% for NBCA; P = .56; major complication rates: 0.3% for PVA, 0% for NBCA; P > .999). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year hemoptysis-free survival rates were, respectively, 77%, 68%, and 66% for PVA and 88%, 85%, and 83% for NBCA (P = .01). Recanalization of previously embolized vessels was more frequent in PVA group (21.5%) than in NBCA group (1.8%; P < .001). NBCA group showed hemoptysis-free survival rates superior to PVA group in patients with bronchiectasis (P = .016). PVA (P = .050) and aspergilloma (P < .001) were predictive factors for recurrent hemoptysis.

CONCLUSION: BAE with NBCA provided higher hemoptysis-free survival rates compared with PVA particles without increasing complication rates. This improvement was evident in patients with bronchiectasis and was caused by more durable embolic effect than PVA particles.



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