In vitro phenotypes to elvitegravir and dolutegravir in primary macrophages and lymphocytes of clonal recombinant viral variants selected in patients failing raltegravir

Filippo Canducci, Elisa Rita Ceresola, Diego Saita, Antonella Castagna, Nicola Gianotti, Mark Underwood, Roberto Burioni, Adriano Lazzarin, Massimo Clementi
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2013, 68 (11): 2525-32

OBJECTIVES: The cross-resistance profiles of elvitegravir and dolutegravir on raltegravir-resistant variants is still controversial or not available in macrophages and lack extensive evaluations on wide panels of clonal variants. Thus, a complete evaluation in parallel with all currently available integrase inhibitors (INIs) was performed.

METHODS: The integrase coding region was RT-PCR-amplified from patient-derived plasma samples and cloned into an HIV-1 molecular clone lacking the integrase region. Twenty recombinant viruses bearing mutations to all primary pathways of resistance to raltegravir were phenotypically evaluated with each integrase inhibitor in freshly purified CD4+ T cells or monocyte-derived macrophages.

RESULTS: Y143R single mutants conferred a higher level of raltegravir resistance in macrophages [fold change (FC) 47.7-60.24] compared with CD4+ T cells (FC 9.55-11.56). All other combinations had similar effects on viral susceptibility to raltegravir in both cell types. Elvitegravir displayed a similar behaviour both in lymphocytes and macrophages with all the tested patterns. When compared with raltegravir, none to modest increases in resistance were observed for the Y143R/C pathways. Dolutegravir maintained its activity and cross-resistance profile in macrophages. Only Q148H/R variants had a reduced level of susceptibility (FC 5.48-18.64). No variations were observed for the Y143R/C (+/-T97A) or N155H variants.

CONCLUSIONS: All INIs showed comparable antiretroviral activity in both cell types even if single mutations were associated with a different level of susceptibility in vitro to raltegravir and elvitegravir in macrophages. In particular, dolutegravir was capable of inhibiting with similar potency infection of raltegravir-resistant variants with Y143 or N155 pathways in both HIV-1 major cell reservoirs.

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