Effects of amphotericin B on Aspergillus flavus clinical isolates with variable susceptibilities to the polyene in an experimental model of systemic aspergillosis

Francesco Barchiesi, Elisabetta Spreghini, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Daniele Giannini, Esther Manso, Pamela Castelli, Corrado Girmenia
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2013, 68 (11): 2587-91

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of amphotericin B (AMB) on clinical isolates of Aspergillus flavus.

METHODS: MICs of both standard AMB and liposomal AMB (L-AMB) were determined using a broth dilution method for seven isolates of A. flavus. AMB MICs were also determined using the Etest. The activity of the polyene was then investigated in a murine model of systemic aspergillosis in which animals were infected intravenously, treated intravenously with several doses of the polyene (1-10 mg/kg/day) and observed for survival.

RESULTS: Broth dilution AMB, broth dilution L-AMB and Etest AMB MICs ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/L, 0.06 to >16 mg/L and 1.0 to >32 mg/L, respectively. There were two isolates for which all doses were effective at prolonging the survival. Their AMB MICs were ≤1.0 mg/L, regardless of the method/drug formulation utilized for testing. There were four isolates for which no regimen was effective. Their broth dilution AMB, broth dilution L-AMB and Etest AMB MICs ranged from 1.0 to 2.0 mg/L, 0.06 to >16 mg/L and 2.0 to >32 mg/L, respectively. There was one isolate for which only L-AMB given at 10 mg/kg/day was effective; broth dilution MICs of AMB and L-AMB were 0.5 mg/L, while the Etest MIC of AMB was 2.0 mg/L.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that not all isolates of A. flavus should be considered resistant to AMB. The Etest represented the in vitro method that best correlated with the experimental infection. Finally, a clinical isolate showing an MIC ≥2.0 mg/L may be reasonably considered resistant in vivo to any dose/formulation of the polyene.

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