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Magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasound-fusion biopsy significantly upgrades prostate cancer versus systematic 12-core transrectal ultrasound biopsy

M Minhaj Siddiqui, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Hong Truong, Lambros Stamatakis, Srinivas Vourganti, Jeffrey Nix, Anthony N Hoang, Annerleim Walton-Diaz, Brian Shuch, Michael Weintraub, Jochen Kruecker, Hayet Amalou, Baris Turkbey, Maria J Merino, Peter L Choyke, Bradford J Wood, Peter A Pinto
European Urology 2013, 64 (5): 713-9
23787357

BACKGROUND: Gleason scores from standard, 12-core prostate biopsies are upgraded historically in 25-33% of patients. Multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) with ultrasound (US)-targeted fusion biopsy may better sample the true gland pathology.

OBJECTIVE: The rate of Gleason score upgrading from an MRI/US-fusion-guided prostate-biopsy platform is compared with a standard 12-core biopsy regimen alone.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: There were 582 subjects enrolled from August 2007 through August 2012 in a prospective trial comparing systematic, extended 12-core transrectal ultrasound biopsies to targeted MRI/US-fusion-guided prostate biopsies performed during the same biopsy session.

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The highest Gleason score from each biopsy method was compared.

INTERVENTIONS: An MRI/US-fusion-guided platform with electromagnetic tracking was used for the performance of the fusion-guided biopsies.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) was made in 315 (54%) of the patients. Addition of targeted biopsy led to Gleason upgrading in 81 (32%) cases. Targeted biopsy detected 67% more Gleason ≥4+3 tumors than 12-core biopsy alone and missed 36% of Gleason ≤3+4 tumors, thus mitigating the detection of lower-grade disease. Conversely, 12-core biopsy led to upgrading in 67 (26%) cases over targeted biopsy alone but only detected 8% more Gleason ≥4+3 tumors. On multivariate analysis, MP-MRI suspicion was associated with Gleason score upgrading in the targeted lesions (p<0.001). The main limitation of this study was that definitive pathology from radical prostatectomy was not available.

CONCLUSIONS: MRI/US-fusion-guided biopsy upgrades and detects PCa of higher Gleason score in 32% of patients compared with traditional 12-core biopsy alone. Targeted biopsy technique preferentially detects higher-grade PCa while missing lower-grade tumors.

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