JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Ultrasonographic evaluation of malignant and normal cervical lymph nodes.

Head and neck malignancies, including squamous cell carcinoma, lymphoma, and thyroid cancer, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and frequently present with cervical lymphadenopathy. Distinguishing normal from malignant lymph nodes is critical for accurate staging, prognosis, and determination of optimal therapeutic options. Gray-scale, power, and color Doppler ultrasonography offers an inexpensive yet effective method in identifying abnormal cervical lymph nodes. Sonographic nodal features that should be assessed include size, shape, echotexture (including microcalcifications and cystic changes), presence of an echogenic hilus, and vascularity. Although no single sonographic feature can accurately distinguish malignant from normal nodes, a combination of these characteristics can help to make this determination.

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