Effects of ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/20 mg vs. atorvastatin 20 mg on apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: results of a randomized controlled trial

Ju-Hee Lee, Hyun-Jae Kang, Hyo-Soo Kim, Dae-Won Sohn, Byung-Hee Oh, Young-Bae Park
American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions 2013, 13 (5): 343-51

BACKGROUND: Although the efficacy of ezetimibe/simvastatin and atorvastatin on traditional lipid parameters has been studied extensively, the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 (ApoB/ApoA1) ratio, which has a better predictive value for cardiovascular events, has not previously been used as a primary endpoint in these two treatment groups.

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare the efficacy and safety of ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/20 mg versus atorvastatin 20 mg once daily in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

STUDY DESIGN: This study was an open-label, randomized, controlled study. Type 2 diabetes patients with high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (>100 mg/dL) were randomized to receive ezetimibe/simvastatin or atorvastatin.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary endpoint was the difference in the percent change of ApoB/ApoA1 at 12 weeks, and secondary endpoints were changes in lipid profiles, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, and C-reactive protein.

RESULTS: In total, 132 patients (66 for each group) were enrolled and randomized. After 12 weeks of treatment, the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio was significantly reduced in both groups; however, the difference of changes between the two groups was not statistically significant (ezetimibe/simvastatin -38.6 ± 18.0 % vs. atorvastatin -34.4 ± 15.5 %; p = 0.059). There were no significant differences in changes to total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, ApoB, and ApoB48 between the two groups. However, the increments of ApoA1 were significantly greater in the ezetimibe/simvastatin group than in the atorvastatin group (2.8 ± 10.0 vs. -1.8 ± 9.8 %; p = 0.002). In the per-protocol analysis, improvement in ApoB/ApoA1 was significantly greater in the ezetimibe/simvastatin group (-42.8 ± 11.8 vs. -36.7 ± 13.2 %; p = 0.019). The changes in HbA1c, HOMA index, and C-reactive protein were comparable between the two groups. The adverse reaction rate was similar between the two groups (24.2 vs. 34.9 %; p = 0.180).

CONCLUSION: Ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/20 mg is comparable to atorvastatin 20 mg for the management of dyslipidemia, and may have more favorable effects on apolipoprotein profiles than atorvastatin 20 mg in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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