JOURNAL ARTICLE

SNP-based non-invasive prenatal testing detects sex chromosome aneuploidies with high accuracy

Carole Samango-Sprouse, Milena Banjevic, Allison Ryan, Styrmir Sigurjonsson, Bernhard Zimmermann, Matthew Hill, Megan P Hall, Margaret Westemeyer, Jennifer Saucier, Zachary Demko, Matthew Rabinowitz
Prenatal Diagnosis 2013, 33 (7): 643-9
23712453

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based and informatics-based non-invasive prenatal test that detects sex chromosome aneuploidies early in pregnancy.

METHODS: Sixteen aneuploid samples, including thirteen 45,X, two 47,XXY, and one 47,XYY, along with 185 euploid controls, were analyzed. Cell-free DNA was isolated from maternal plasma, amplified in a single multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay that targeted 19,488 polymorphic loci covering chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y, and sequenced. Sequencing results were analyzed using a Bayesian-based maximum likelihood statistical method to determine copy number of interrogated chromosomes, calculating sample-specific accuracies.

RESULTS: Of the samples that passed a stringent quality control metric (93%), the algorithm correctly identified copy number at all five chromosomes in all but one of the 187 samples, for 934/935 correct calls as early as 9.4 weeks of gestation. We detected 45,X with 91.7% sensitivity (CI: 61.5-99.8%) and 100% specificity (CI: 97.9-100%), and 47,XXY and 47,XYY. The average calculated accuracy was 99.78%.

CONCLUSION: This method non-invasively detected 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XYY fetuses from cell-free DNA isolated from maternal plasma with high calculated accuracies and thus offers a non-invasive method with the potential to function as a routine screen allowing for early prenatal detection of rarely diagnosed yet commonly occurring sex aneuploidies.

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