Lucidone protects human skin keratinocytes against free radical-induced oxidative damage and inflammation through the up-regulation of HO-1/Nrf2 antioxidant genes and down-regulation of NF-κB signaling pathway

K J Senthil Kumar, Hsin-Ling Yang, Yu-Cheng Tsai, Pin-Chun Hung, Show-Huei Chang, Heng-Wei Lo, Pei-Chun Shen, Ssu-Ching Chen, Hui-Min Wang, Sheng-Yang Wang, Chih-Wei Chou, You-Cheng Hseu
Food and Chemical Toxicology 2013, 59: 55-66
We investigated the protective effects of lucidone, a naturally occurring cyclopentenedione isolated from the fruits of Lindera erythrocarpa Makino, against free-radical and inflammation stimulator 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, with the aim of revealing the possible mechanisms underlying the protective efficacy. Lucidone pretreatment (0.5-10 μg/mL) markedly increased HaCaT cell viability and suppressed AAPH-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage. Notably, the antioxidant potential of lucidone was directly correlated with the increased expression of an antioxidant gene, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), which was followed by the augmentation of the nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), with or without AAPH. Nrf2 knockdown diminished the protective effects of lucidone. We also observed that lucidone pretreatment inhibited AAPH-induced inflammatory chemokine prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in HaCaT cells. Lucidone treatment also significantly inhibited AAPH-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and suppressing the degradation of inhibitor-κB (I-κB). Furthermore, lucidone significantly diminished AAPH-induced COX-2 expression through the down-regulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Therefore, lucidone may possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and may be useful for the prevention of free radical-induced skin damage.

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