JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Combination of oral clonidine and intravenous low-dose ketamine reduces the consumption of postoperative patient-controlled analgesia morphine after spine surgery

Rie Nitta, Toru Goyagi, Toshiaki Nishikawa
Acta Anaesthesiologica Taiwanica: Official Journal of the Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists 2013, 51 (1): 14-7
23711600

OBJECTIVE: Because ketamine, clonidine, and morphine modulate nociceptive pain, coadministration of these drugs would augment the activity of postoperative analgesic drugs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of coadministration of ketamine and clonidine on postoperative morphine consumption in patients after spine surgery.

METHODS: The patients undergoing spine surgery were allocated randomly to one of the four study groups, which are as follows: group M (n = 12), intravenously (IV) administered patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) morphine alone; group MK (n = 12), IV-PCA morphine plus intra- and postoperative ketamine; group MC (n = 13), IV-PCA morphine plus oral clonidine premedication; group MCK (n = 12), IV-PCA morphine plus intra- and postoperative ketamine and clonidine premedication. The patients in the MC and MCK groups received 4 μg/kg clonidine orally, whereas those in the MK and MCK groups received IV bolus of ketamine (10 mg) at a rate of 2 mg/kg/hour during anesthesia. Patients were arranged to use IV-PCA mode for administration of drugs, which was programmed to deliver a bolus dose of 2-mg morphine (groups M and MC), or boluses of 2-mg morphine and 2-mg ketamine (groups MK and MCK). Scores of visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, morphine requirement, vital signs, nausea, sedation, and other side effects were followed up to 60 hours after surgery.

RESULTS: Although there were significant differences in VAS pain scores at rest 24-48 hours after the surgery, the VAS pain score at movement was similar among the groups. The number of PCA request and cumulative morphine requirement were significantly lower in the MCK group than in the M group.

CONCLUSION: This study results show that the administration of perioperative low-dose ketamine combined with clonidine premedication could reduce the consumption of postoperative PCA morphine following spine surgery.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
23711600
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"