Microbiota-liver axis in hepatic disease

Benoit Chassaing, Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Andrew T Gewirtz
Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases 2014, 59 (1): 328-39
Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota, long appreciated to be a key determinant of intestinal inflammation, is also playing a key role in chronic inflammatory disease of the liver. Such studies have yielded a general central hypothesis whereby microbiota products activate the innate immune system to drive proinflammatory gene expression, thus promoting chronic inflammatory disease of the liver. This article reviews the background supporting this hypothesis, outlines how it can potentially explain classic and newly emerging epidemiological chronic inflammatory liver disease, and discusses potential therapeutic means to manipulate the microbiota so as to prevent and/or treat liver disease.

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