JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Reasons for failed ablation for idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract-like ventricular arrhythmias.

BACKGROUND: The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) is the most common site of origin of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) in patients with idiopathic VAs. A left bundle branch block, inferior axis morphology arrhythmia is the hallmark of RVOT arrhythmias. VAs from other sites of origin can mimic RVOT VAs, and ablation in the RVOT typically fails for these VAs.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze reasons for failed ablations of RVOT-like VAs.

METHODS: Among a consecutive series of 197 patients with an RVOT-like electrocardiographic (ECG) morphology who were referred for ablation, 38 patients (13 men; age 46 ± 14 years; left ventricular ejection fraction 47% ± 14%) in whom a prior procedure failed within the RVOT underwent a second ablation procedure. ECG characteristics of the VA were compared to a consecutive series of 50 patients with RVOT VAs.

RESULTS: The origin of the VA was identified in 95% of the patients. In 28 of 38 (74%) patients, the arrhythmia origin was not in the RVOT. The VA originated from intramural sites (n = 8, 21%), the pulmonary arteries (n = 7, 18%), the aortic cusps (n = 6, 16%), and the epicardium (n = 5, 13%). The origin was within the RVOT in 10 (26%) patients. In 2 (5%) patients, the origin could not be identified despite biventricular, aortic, and epicardial mapping. The VA was eliminated in 34 of 38 (89%) patients with repeat procedures. The ECG features of patients with failed RVOT-like arrhythmias were different from the characteristics of RVOT arrhythmias.

CONCLUSIONS: In patients in whom ablation of a VA with an RVOT-like appearance fails, mapping of the pulmonary artery, the aortic cusps, the epicardium, the left ventricular outflow tract, and the aortic cusps will help identify the correct site of origin. The 12-lead ECG is helpful in differentiating these VAs from RVOT VAs.

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