Lung transplant is a viable treatment option for patients with congenital and acquired pulmonary vein stenosis

Ankit Bharat, Deirdre J Epstein, Mark Grady, Albert Faro, Peter Michelson, Stuart C Sweet, Charles B Huddleston
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 2013, 32 (6): 621-5

BACKGROUND: Congenital pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is associated with high mortality because surgical repair is usually not feasible or is ineffective. In addition, acquired PVS after repair of congenital heart disease is a potential complication that occurs in 5% to 10% of patients and carries a poor prognosis. Lung transplantation has been proposed as a viable option. However, long-term outcomes after lung transplant in these patients remain unknown.

METHODS: This was a retrospective review of prospectively maintained database.

RESULTS: Between 1990 and 2010, 20 patients (12 girls, 8 boys) with PVS underwent transplantation. Of these, 8 had acquired stenosis from prior repair for total anomalous pulmonary venous return and 1 from atrioventricular canal repair. The median waiting time was 26 days. The mean age at transplant was 1.1 ± 0.89 years, and 16 of the 20 patients were white. All patients received bilateral lung transplants on cardiopulmonary bypass. Four patients (20%) were receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support before transplant, and 3 (15%) required ECMO after transplant due to graft dysfunction. The mean intensive care unit stay was 33.5 ± 29.1 days, and the mean hospital stay was 58.7 ± 43.5 days. The 30-day mortality was 10%. ECMO support in the peri-operative period was the main predictor of 30-day and 1-year mortality (hazard ratio, 3.6; p = 0.01). The overall 5-year survival of the entire cohort was 59.8% (67.3% congenital vs 50.7% acquired). The predominant cause of long-term mortality was bronchiolitis obliterans. The 5-year bronchiolitis obliterans-free survival was 48% (57.2% congenital vs 41% acquired).

CONCLUSION: Lung transplant is a viable treatment option for PVS, particularly for patients with diffuse disease or failed surgical correction.


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