CASE REPORTS
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Severe left main coronary artery stenosis with abnormal branching pattern in a patient with mild supravalvar aortic stenosis and Williams-Beuren syndrome.

Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a multisystem genetic disorder comprising of craniofacial, developmental, and cardiac malformations. The most common cardiac defects found are supravalvar aortic stenosis and peripheral pulmonary stenosis. However, WBS should be regarded as a general arteriopathy consisting of stenoses of medium- and large-sized arteries including the coronary arteries. Cardiac manifestations are often the initial reason for referral and careful cardiovascular assessment is important as coronary artery involvement confers a significant anesthetic risk and may be associated with ischemia and resultant ventricular dysfunction. Here we review the literature and describe a 2-year-old boy with evolving clinical features of WBS. He presented to our pediatric cardiology department for a routine assessment of peripheral pulmonary branch stenosis. A 12-lead electrocardiogram showed changes consistent with left ventricular ischemia and a two-dimensional echocardiogram showed reduced left ventricular function and mild supravalvar aortic stenosis. Subsequent cardiac catheterization diagnosed severe left main coronary artery stenosis. Deteriorating ventricular function secondary to acute ischemia postcatheterization required intensive care treatment from which the patient did not recover. This case report highlights the necessity of careful cardiology assessment without delay in patients with a suspicion of WBS. Isolated coronary stenosis though rare in WBS should be considered in the presence of ischemia or reduced ventricular function. Larger case series are needed to further characterize the correlation between WBS and acute coronary events.

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