Fusarium damage in cereal grains from Western Canada. 1. Phylogenetic analysis of moniliformin-producing fusarium species and their natural occurrence in mycotoxin-contaminated wheat, oats, and rye

Tom Gräfenhan, Susan K Patrick, Mike Roscoe, Robert Trelka, Don Gaba, Jason M Chan, Twylla McKendry, Randy M Clear, Sheryl A Tittlemier
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2013 June 12, 61 (23): 5425-37
Harvest samples of common wheat (Triticum aestivum), oats (Avena sativa), and rye (Secale cereale) from producers in western Canada were analyzed for fungal infection by toxigenic Fusarium species and contamination by trichothecenes and moniliformin (MON). Fusarium graminearum and F. avenaceum were the two most frequently isolated species from samples of rye and wheat collected in 2010. F. poae and F. sporotrichioides were more commonly detected in randomly selected oat seeds. Other toxigenic Fusarium species including F. acuminatum, F. culmorum, and F. pseudograminearum as well as Phaeosphaeria nodorum (a.k.a. Septoria nodorum) were recovered primarily from fusarium-damaged kernels of wheat. Pure cultures of F. avenaceum, F. acuminatum, and other related species known to produce moniliformin were isolated from incubated seeds based on micro- and macromorphological criteria. The phylogenetic analysis inferred from partial DNA sequences of the acl1 and tef-1α genes revealed two major clades representing F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum, respectively. These clades comprised all Canadian isolates of the two species and a number of reference cultures studied earlier for their propensity to form moniliformin in vitro and in planta. However, some reference cultures previously reported to produce significant amounts of moniliformin formed minor phylogenetic lineages that represent rather distinct but closely related species. Concomitantly, cereal samples were analyzed for the presence of deoxynivalenol and moniliformin. These two Fusarium toxins were observed most frequently in common wheat, at concentrations up to 1.1 and 4.0 mg/kg, respectively. There was no apparent relationship between moniliformin concentrations and detection of F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum in rye and oat samples. Geographical analysis of the distribution of moniliformin and F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum across the Canadian Prairies also did not indicate a strong relationship.

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