Insight into hypoxic preconditioning and ischemic injury through determination of nPKCε-interacting proteins in mouse brain

Sujuan Feng, Dongguo Li, Yun Li, Xuan Yang, Song Han, Junfa Li
Neurochemistry International 2013, 63 (2): 69-79
Cerebral hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) provides neuroprotection by intracellular signaling pathways. We previously demonstrated that novel protein kinase Cε (nPKCε) activation participated in cerebral HPC development. In this study, we explore the role of nPKCε in HPC-induced neuroprotection against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced ischemic injury and identify its possible signaling molecules. A total of 131 adult male BALB/c mice were divided into eight groups: normoxic control (n=9), HPC (n=9), HPC+εV1-2 (n=13), Sham (n=19), HPC+sham (n=6), Ischemia (I, 6h MCAO, n=31), HPC+I (n=25) and HPC+εV1-2+I (n=19). nPKCε specific inhibitor εV1-2 was administered via intracerebroventricular injection. Western blot, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling were applied to determine nPKCε membrane translocation, infarction volume and programmed cell death (PCD), respectively. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-De) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) were used to identify nPKCε-interacting proteins, followed by bioinformatics analysis of genee ontology (GO) to predict nPKCε-specific signaling pathways. Our results showed that HPC attenuates MCAO-induced brain injuries and stabilized nPKCεmembrane translocation in peri-infarct region, which was abolished by nPKCε-speecific inhibitor εV1-2. Proteomics analysis revealed 8 up- and 3 down-regulated nPKCε-interacting proteins both in cytosolic and particulate fractions of HPC mouse brain. GO analysis predicted 25 significant nPKCε-specific signaling pathways among the 16 identified nPKCε-interacting proteins in brain of HPC mice. This study is the first to report multiple nPKCε-interacting proteins and their signaling pathways in HPC mouse brain, suggesting that nPKCε signaling molecules is responsible for HPC-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemic injuries of mice.

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