Antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of Buddleja salviifolia (L.) Lam. leaf extracts and isolated compounds

S C Pendota, M A Aderogba, A R Ndhlala, J Van Staden
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2013 July 9, 148 (2): 515-20

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Buddleja salviifolia leaves are used for the treatment of eye infections and neurodegenerative conditions by various tribes in South Africa.

AIM OF STUDY: This study was designed to isolate the phenolic constituents from the leaf extracts of Buddleja salviifolia and evaluate their antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three phenolic compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of a 20% aqueous methanol leaf extract of Buddleja salviifolia using Sephadex LH-20 and silica gel columns. Structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was carried out using spectroscopic techniques: mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) and NMR (1D and 2D). The extracts and isolated compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase activities using the microdilution technique. The bacteria used for the antimicrobial assays were Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

RESULTS: The isolated compounds were characterized as: 4'-hydroxyphenyl ethyl vanillate (1) a new natural product, acteoside (2) and quercetin (3). The crude extract, fractions and the isolated compounds from the leaves of the plant exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The EtOAc fraction exhibited good activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values ranging from 780.0 to 390.0 µg/mL. Isolated compound 2 exhibited good activity against Staphylococcus aureus with an MIC value of 62.5 µg/mL. The hexane and DCM fractions of leaves showed the best activity against Candida albicans with MIC and MFC values of 390.0 µg/mL. In the AChE inhibitory test, among the tested extracts, the hexane fraction was the most potent with an IC50 value of 107.4 µg/mL, whereas for the isolated compounds, it was compound (3) (quercetin) with an IC50 value of 66.8 µg/mL.

CONCLUSIONS: Activities demonstrated by the extracts and isolated compounds support the ethnopharmacological use of Buddleja salviifolia against eye infections and neurodegenerative diseases.

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