The efficacy of triplet antiemetic therapy with 0.75 mg of palonosetron for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in lung cancer patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy

Satoru Miura, Satoshi Watanabe, Kazuhiro Sato, Masato Makino, Osamu Kobayashi, Hiromi Miyao, Akira Iwashima, Masaaki Okajima, Junta Tanaka, Hiroshi Tanaka, Hiroshi Kagamu, Akira Yokoyama, Ichiei Narita, Hirohisa Yoshizawa
Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer 2013, 21 (9): 2575-81

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) are some of the most problematic symptoms for cancer patients. Triplet therapy consisting of a 5HT3 receptor antagonist, aprepitant, and dexamethasone is a guideline-recommended antiemetic prophylaxis for highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC). The efficacy and safety of triplet therapy using a 0.75-mg dose of palonosetron have not yet been investigated. We performed a prospective phase II study using triplet antiemetic therapy with 0.75 mg of palonosetron.

METHODS: Chemotherapy-naïve lung cancer patients scheduled to receive HEC were enrolled. The eligible patients were pretreated with antiemetic therapy consisting of the intravenous administration of 0.75 mg of palonosetron, and 9.9 mg of dexamethasone and the oral administration of 125 mg of aprepitant on day 1, followed by the oral administration of 80 mg of aprepitant on days 2-3 and the oral administration of 8 mg of dexamethasone on days 2-4. The primary endpoint was the complete response rate (the CR rate; no vomiting and no rescue medication) during the overall phase (0-120 h).

RESULTS: The efficacy analysis was performed in 63 patients. The CR rates during the overall, acute and delayed phases were 81.0, 96.8, and 81.0%, respectively. The no nausea and no significant nausea rate during the overall phase were 54.0 and 66.7%, respectively. The most common adverse event was grade 1 or 2 constipation.

CONCLUSIONS: Triplet antiemetic therapy using a 0.75-mg dose of palonosetron shows a promising antiemetic effect in preventing CINV in lung cancer patients receiving HEC.

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