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Characterization and osteogenic potential of equine muscle tissue- and periosteal tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in comparison with bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells

Catherine L Radtke, Rodolfo Nino-Fong, Blanca P Esparza Gonzalez, Henrik Stryhn, Laurie A McDuffee
American Journal of Veterinary Research 2013, 74 (5): 790-800
23627394

OBJECTIVE: To characterize equine muscle tissue- and periosteal tissue-derived cells as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and assess their proliferation capacity and osteogenic potential in comparison with bone marrow- and adipose tissue-derived MSCs.

SAMPLE: Tissues from 10 equine cadavers.

PROCEDURES: Cells were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue, periosteal tissue from the distomedial aspect of the right tibia, bone marrow aspirates from the fourth and fifth sternebrae, and adipose tissue from the left subcutaneous region. Mesenchymal stem cells were characterized on the basis of morphology, adherence to plastic, trilineage differentiation, and detection of stem cell surface markers via immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Mesenchymal stem cells were tested for osteogenic potential with osteocalcin gene expression via real-time PCR assay. Mesenchymal stem cell cultures were counted at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours to determine tissue-specific MSC proliferative capacity.

RESULTS: Equine muscle tissue- and periosteal tissue-derived cells were characterized as MSCs on the basis of spindle-shaped morphology, adherence to plastic, trilineage differentiation, presence of CD44 and CD90 cell surface markers, and nearly complete absence of CD45 and CD34 cell surface markers. Muscle tissue-, periosteal tissue-, and adipose tissue-derived MSCs proliferated significantly faster than did bone marrow-derived MSCs at 72 and 96 hours.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Equine muscle and periosteum are sources of MSCs. Equine muscle- and periosteal-derived MSCs have osteogenic potential comparable to that of equine adipose- and bone marrow-derived MSCs, which could make them useful for tissue engineering applications in equine medicine.

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