JOURNAL ARTICLE

Effect of chromium (VI) exposure on antioxidant defense status and trace element homeostasis in acute experiment in rat

Dana Kotyzová, Anna Hodková, Monika Bludovská, Vladislav Eybl
Toxicology and Industrial Health 2015, 31 (11): 1044-50
23625905
Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds is of concern in many Cr-related industries and their surrounding environment. Cr(VI) is a proven toxin and carcinogen. The Cr(VI) compounds are easily absorbed, can diffuse across cell membranes, and have strong oxidative potential. Despite intensive studies of Cr(VI) pro-oxidative effects, limited data exist on the influence of Cr(VI) on selenoenzymes thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-important components of antioxidant defense system. This study investigates the effect of Cr(VI) exposure on antioxidant defense status, with focus on these selenoenzymes, and on trace element homeostasis in an acute experiment in rat. Male Wistar rats (130-140g) were assigned to two groups of 8 animals: I. control; and II. Cr(VI) treated. The animals in Cr(VI) group were administered a single dose of K2Cr2O7 (20 mg /kg, intraperitoneally (ip)). The control group received saline solution. After 24 h, the animals were sacrificed and the liver and kidneys were examined for lipid peroxidation (LP; thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) concentration), the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activities of GPx-1, TrxR-1, and glutathione reductase (GR). Samples of tissues were also used to estimate Cr accumulation and alterations in zinc, copper, and iron levels. The acute Cr(VI) exposure caused an increase in both hepatic and renal LP (by 70%, p < 0.01 and by 15%, p < 0.05, respectively), increased hepatic GSH level and GPx-1 activity, and decreased renal GPx-1 activity. The activity of GR was not changed. A significant inhibitory effect of Cr(VI) was found on TrxR-1 activity in both the liver and the kidneys. The ability of Cr(VI) to cause TrxR inhibition could contribute to its cytotoxic effects. Further investigation of oxidative responses in different in vivo models may enable the development of strategies to protect against Cr(VI) oxidative damage.

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