Anthelmintic activity of Arisaema franchetianum and Arisaema lobatum essential oils against Haemonchus contortus

Liang Zhu, Jiali Dai, Li Yang, Jun Qiu
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2013 June 21, 148 (1): 311-6

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Arisaema franchetianum and Arisaema lobatum are two perennial plants native to China. Arisaema franchetianum is universally used to promote the subsidence of induration and swelling, quicken blood and relieve pains, and kill intestinal parasites in humans and animals. Arisaema lobatum is used to treat malaria, intestinal parasites, and snake and insect bites in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of the essential oils from Arisaema franchetianum and Arisaema lobatum and evaluate the anthelmintic effect against Haemonchus contortus.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two oils were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The anthelmintic bioassay tests of Arisaema franchetianum and Arisaema lobatum essential oil, linalool and carvacrol were performed using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA) and larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA).

RESULTS: Fifty six components representing 96.88% of the Arisaema franchetianum oil and 64 components representing 96.88% of the Arisaema lobatum oil were identified. Carvacrol and linalool were found to be the major constituents of two oils. In the EHA, greater than 99% inhibition were observed with Arisaema franchetianum oil at 10mg/mL (CE50 1.63mg/mL) and Arisaema lobatum oil at 5 and 10mg/mL (CE50 0.48mg/mL). In the LDA, both oils induced complete inhibition at 10mg/mL, with the CE50 being 1.10mg/mL for Arisaema franchetianum oil and 0.73mg/mL for Arisaema lobatum oil. In the LMIA, the Arisaema franchetianum oil and Arisaema lobatum oil at best inhibited 74.1% and 95.6% of larval migration at 10mg/mL, respectively. Carvacrol exhibited similar activity to Arisaema lobatum essential oil and linalool did not show high activity in every assay.

CONCLUSIONS: These data show for the first time that the essential oils obtained from Arisaema franchetianum or Arisaema lobatum had promising anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus. Arisaema plant may offer an alternative source for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats.

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