COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE

Trends in the prevalence of reduced GFR in the United States: a comparison of creatinine- and cystatin C-based estimates

Morgan E Grams, Stephen P Juraschek, Elizabeth Selvin, Meredith C Foster, Lesley A Inker, John H Eckfeldt, Andrew S Levey, Josef Coresh
American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation 2013, 62 (2): 253-60
23619125

BACKGROUND: The US prevalence of reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on serum creatinine level increased during the decade ending in 2002. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cystatin C measurements recently were calibrated to the international standard, allowing for an independent test of the trend in prevalence of reduced eGFR using cystatin C level.

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys performed during 2 periods.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Nationally representative subsamples of adult participants from NHANES III (1988-1994) and the NHANES 1999-2002 surveys.

PREDICTOR: Survey period.

OUTCOMES: Prevalence of reduced GFR, defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m² based on levels of serum creatinine, cystatin C, or both (eGFRcr, eGFRcys, and eGFRcr-cys), using estimating equations developed by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI).

MEASUREMENTS: Serum cystatin C level, measured from stored samples in 2006, calibrated to the international standard in 2012.

RESULTS: Between 1988-1994 and 1999-2002, the prevalence of reduced eGFRcr, eGFRcys, and eGFRcr-cys increased from 4.7% (95% CI, 4.1%-5.3%) to 6.5% (95% CI, 5.9%-7.1%) (P < 0.001), from 5.5% (95% CI, 4.6%-6.5%) to 8.7% (95% CI, 7.5%-10.0%) (P < 0.001), and from 4.4% (95% CI, 3.7%-5.2%) to 7.1% (95% CI, 6.2%-8.0%) (P < 0.001), respectively. The higher prevalence of reduced GFR in the later period was observed in all subgroups of age, race, sex, and GFR categories. After adjusting for changes in the US population by age, sex, race, diabetes, hypertension, and body mass index, prevalence ratios of reduced GFR in the later versus earlier survey were 1.24 (95% CI, 1.09-1.45), 1.34 (95% CI, 1.15-1.67), and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.17-1.65) using eGFRcr, eGFRcys, and eGFRcr-cys, respectively.

LIMITATIONS: Likely underascertainment of persons with GFR <15 mL/min/1.73 m²; GFR was estimated and not measured; comparability of laboratory assays based on a calibration subsample.

CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of reduced eGFRcys in the US civilian noninstitutionalized population increased between 1988-1994 and 1999-2002, confirming the increase observed in the prevalence of reduced eGFRcr.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
23619125
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"