JOURNAL ARTICLE

[Effect of basic fibroblast growth factor and parathyroid hormone-related protein on early and late chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells induced by transforming growth factor beta 1]

Yin Liu, Liping He, Jing Tian
Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery 2013, 27 (2): 199-206
23596689

OBJECTIVE: To explore the impact of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) on early and late chondrogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1).

METHODS: BMSCs were isolated from 3 healthy Japanese rabbits (2-month-old, weighing 1.6-2.1 kg, male or female), and were clutured to passage 3. The cells were put into pellet culture system and were divided into 5 groups according to different induce conditions: TGF-beta1 group (group A), TGF-beta1/bFGF group (group B), TGF-beta1/21 days bFGF group (group C), TGF-beta1/PTHrP group (group D), and TGF-beta1/21 days PTHrP group (group E). At the beginning, TGF-beta1 (10 ng/mL) was added to all groups, then bFGF and PTHrP (10 ng/mL) were added to groups B and D respectively; bFGF and PTHrP (10 ng/mL) were added to groups C and E at 21 days respectively. The gene expressions of collagen type I (Col I), Col II, Col X, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-13, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were detected once every week for 6 weeks. The 1, 9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) staining was used to observe the extracellular matrix secretion at 6 weeks.

RESULTS: The expression of Col I in groups C and E showed a significant downward trend after 3 weeks; the expression in group A was significantly higher than that in groups C and E at 4 and 5 weeks (P < 0.05), and than that in groups B and D at 3-6 weeks (P < 0.05); and significant differences were found between groups B and C at 3 and 4 weeks, and between groups D and E at 3 weeks (P < 0.05). After 3 weeks, the expressions of Col II and Col X in groups C and E gradually decreased, and were significantly lower than those in group A at 4-6 weeks (P < 0.05). Groups B and D showed no significant difference in the expressions of Col II and Col X at all time points, but there was significant difference when compared with group A (P < 0.05). MMP-13 had no obvious expression at all time points in group A; significant differences were found between group B and groups A, C at 3 weeks (P < 0.05); and the expression was significantly higher in group D than in groups A and E (P < 0.05). ALP activity gradually increased with time in group A; after 4 weeks, ALP activity in groups C and E obviously decreased, and was significantly lower than that in group A (P < 0.05); there were significant differences between groups B and C, and between groups D and E at 2 and 3 weeks (P < 0.05). DMMB staining showed more cartilage lacuna in group A than in the other groups at 6 weeks.

CONCLUSION: bFGF and PTHrP can inhibit early and late chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs by changing synthesis and decomposition of the cartilage extracellular matrix. The inhibition is not only by suppressing Col X expression, but also possibly by suppressing other chondrogenic protein.

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