The impact of acute kidney injury on midterm outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a matched propensity score analysis

Sean Gallagher, Dan A Jones, Matthew J Lovell, Sevda Hassan, Andrew Wragg, Akhil Kapur, Rakesh Uppal, Muhammad M Yaqoob
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 2014, 147 (3): 989-95

BACKGROUND: The development of acute kidney injury (AKI) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is associated with increased short- and long-term mortality. Whether AKI has a causal relationship with subsequent mortality or whether the development of AKI simply occurs in patients with more comorbidity undergoing more complex procedures remains unresolved.

METHODS AND RESULTS: This was an observational cohort study of prospectively collected data from 4694 patients discharged from the hospital after first-time CABG surgery at a tertiary cardiac center between 2003 and 2008. AKI was defined using the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End stage (RIFLE) criteria, which require at least a 50% increase in serum creatinine. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality determined via UK Office of National Statistics. A total of 562 (12.0%) of patients developed AKI after CABG surgery. Patients who developed AKI were older, more likely to be female, and had more comorbidity than patients who did not develop AKI. In a Cox multivariable analysis, the development of AKI was an independent predictor of midterm mortality (hazard ratio, 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-2.16). Subsequently, a comparison of 562 patients who sustained AKI with 562 propensity score-matched patients who did not sustain AKI was undertaken. After propensity matching, baseline clinical and operative characteristics were similar between both groups. After Cox multivariable analysis of the propensity-matched cohort, AKI remained an independent predictor of midterm mortality (hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.93).

CONCLUSIONS: The development of AKI after CABG is a serious event associated with worse midterm survival. This excess mortality cannot be explained simply by coexisting comorbidity and surgical complexity.

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