Second-line rescue triple therapy with levofloxacin after failure of non-bismuth quadruple "sequential" or "concomitant" treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection

Javier P Gisbert, Javier Molina-Infante, Alicia C Marin, Gemma Vinagre, Jesus Barrio, Adrian Gerald McNicholl
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 2013, 48 (6): 652-6

BACKGROUND: Non-bismuth quadruple "sequential" and "concomitant" regimens, including a proton pump inhibitor (PPI), amoxicillin, clarithromycin and a nitroimidazole, are increasingly used as first-line treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection. Eradication with rescue regimens may be challenging after failure of key antibiotics such as clarithromycin and nitroimidazoles.

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a second-line levofloxacin-containing triple regimen (PPI-amoxicillin-levofloxacin) in the eradication of H. pylori after non-bismuth quadruple-containing treatment failure.


DESIGN: prospective multicenter study.

PATIENTS: in whom a non-bismuth quadruple regimen, administered either sequentially (PPI + amoxicillin for 5 days followed by PPI + clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 more days) or concomitantly (PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin + metronidazole for 10 days) had previously failed.

INTERVENTION: levofloxacin (500 mg b.i.d.), amoxicillin (1 g b.i.d.) and PPI (standard dose b.i.d.) for 10 days.

OUTCOME: eradication was confirmed with (13)C-urea breath test 4-8 weeks after therapy. Compliance and tolerance: compliance was determined through questioning and recovery of empty medication envelopes. Incidence of adverse effects was evaluated by means of a questionnaire.

RESULTS: 100 consecutive patients were included (mean age 50 years, 62% females, 12% peptic ulcer and 88% dyspepsia): 37 after "sequential", and 63 after "concomitant" treatment failure. All patients took all medications correctly. Overall, per-protocol and intention-to-treat H. pylori eradication rates were 75.5% (95% CI 66-85%) and 74% (65-83%). Respective intention-to-treat cure rates for "sequential" and "concomitant" failure regimens were 74.4% and 71.4%, respectively. Adverse effects were reported in six (6%) patients; all of them were mild.

CONCLUSION: Ten-day levofloxacin-containing triple therapy constitutes an encouraging second-line strategy in patients with previous non-bismuth quadruple "sequential" or "concomitant" treatment failure.

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