Planar scintigraphy with 123I/99mTc-sestamibi, 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT, 11C-methionine PET/CT, or selective venous sampling before reoperation of primary hyperparathyroidism?

Camilla Schalin-Jäntti, Eeva Ryhänen, Ilkka Heiskanen, Marko Seppänen, Johanna Arola, Jukka Schildt, Mika Väisänen, Lassi Nelimarkka, Irina Lisinen, Ville Aalto, Pirjo Nuutila, Matti J Välimäki
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2013, 54 (5): 739-47

UNLABELLED: All patients with primary hyperparathyroidism should undergo localization studies before reoperation, but it is not known which method is most accurate. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare the performance of planar scintigraphy with (123)I/(99m)Tc-sestamibi, (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT (SPECT/CT), (11)C-methionine PET/CT, and selective venous sampling (SVS) in persistent primary hyperparathyroidism.

METHODS: Twenty-one patients referred for reoperation of persistent hyperparathyroidism were included and investigated with (123)I/(99m)Tc-sestamibi, SPECT/CT (n = 19), (11)C-methionine PET/CT, and SVS (n = 18) before reoperation. All patients had been operated on 1-2 times previously because of hyperparathyroidism. The results of the localization studies were compared with operative findings, histology, and biochemical cure.

RESULTS: Eighteen (86%) of 21 patients were biochemically cured. Nineteen parathyroid glands (9 adenomas, 1 atypical adenoma, and 9 hyperplastic glands) were removed from 17 patients, and 1 patient who was biochemically cured had an unclear histology result. The accuracy for localizing a pathologic parathyroid gland to the correct side of the neck was 59% (95% confidence interval [CI], 36%-79%) for (123)I/(99m)Tc-sestamibi, 19% (95% CI, 5%-42%) for SPECT/CT, 65% (95% CI, 43%-84%) for (11)C-methionine PET/CT, and 40% (95% CI, 19%-65%) for SVS (P < 0.01 for (123)I/(99m)Tc-sestamibi vs. SPECT/CT). The corresponding accuracy for the correct quadrant or more specific site was 48% (95% CI, 27%-69%) for (123)I/(99m)Tc-sestamibi, 14% (95% CI, 3%-36%) for SPECT/CT, 61% (95% CI, 39%-80%) for (11)C-methionine PET/CT, and 25% (95% CI, 9%-49%) for SVS (P < 0.02 for (123)I/(99m)Tc-sestamibi vs. SPECT/CT). In the 3 patients not cured, preoperative (123)I/(99m)Tc-sestamibi and SPECT/CT remained negative, SVS was false predictive in all, and (11)C-methionine PET/CT in 1. (11)C-methionine PET/CT accurately revealed the pathologic gland in 4 of 8 (50%) patients with a negative (123)I/(99m)Tc-sestamibi scan result, all of whom were biochemically cured after reoperation.

CONCLUSION: Planar scintigraphy with (123)I/(99m)Tc-sestamibi performs well in complicated primary hyperparathyroidism and is recommended as first-line imaging before reoperation. (11)C-methionine PET/CT provides valuable additional information if (123)I/(99m)Tc-sestamibi scan results remain negative. (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT/CT and SVS provide no additional information, compared with the combined results of (123)I/(99m)Tc-sestamibi and (11)C-methionine PET/CT imaging.

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