TIMP3 is the primary TIMP to regulate agonist-induced vascular remodelling and hypertension

Ratnadeep Basu, Jiwon Lee, Jude S Morton, Abhijit Takawale, Dong Fan, Vijay Kandalam, Xiuhua Wang, Sandra T Davidge, Zamaneh Kassiri
Cardiovascular Research 2013 June 1, 98 (3): 360-71

AIMS: Hypertension is accompanied by structural remodelling of vascular extracellular matrix (ECM). Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the matrix structural proteins. In response to a hypertensive stimulus, the balance between MMPs and TIMPs is altered. We examined the role of TIMPs in agonist-induced hypertension.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We subjected TIMP-knockout mice to angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion, and found that Ang-II-induced hypertension in TIMP1(-/-), TIMP2(-/-), and TIMP4(-/-) mice was comparable to wild-type (WT) mice, but significantly suppressed in TIMP3(-/-) mice. Ex vivo pressure myography analyses on carotid and mesenteric arteries revealed that Ang-II-infused TIMP3(-/-) arteries were more distensible with impaired elastic recoil compared with the WT group. The acute response to vasoconstriction and vasodilation was intact in TIMP3(-/-) mesenteric and carotid arteries. Mesenteric arteries from TIMP3(-/-)-Ang II mice exhibited a reduced media-to-lumen ratio, suppressed collagen and elastin levels, elevated elastase and gelatinase proteolytic activities compared with WT-Ang II. TIMP3(-/-)-Ang II carotid arteries also showed adverse structural remodelling. Treatment of mice with doxycycline, a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, improved matrix integrity in mesenteric and carotid arteries in TIMP3(-/-)-Ang II and differentially regulated elastin and collagen levels in WT-Ang II vs. TIMP3(-/-)-Ang II.

CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates a critical role for TIMP3, among all TIMPs, is preserving arterial ECM in response to Ang II. It is critical to acknowledge that the suppressed Ang-II-induced hypertension in TIMP3(-/-) mice is not a protective mechanism but owing to adverse remodelling in arterial matrix.

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