Vitamin D reduces deposition of advanced glycation end-products in the aortic wall and systemic oxidative stress in diabetic rats

Erik Salum, Jaak Kals, Priit Kampus, Tiit Salum, Kersti Zilmer, Marina Aunapuu, Andres Arend, Jaan Eha, Mihkel Zilmer
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2013, 100 (2): 243-9

AIMS: Vitamin D may have an important role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) such as Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), have been implicated in diabetic vascular complications via oxidative stress-mediated pathways. We investigated the potential protective effect of vitamin D on CML accumulation in the diabetic aortic wall. To test the effects of vitamin D on systemic oxidative stress we also assessed liver oxidative stress index (OSI) and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC).

METHODS: Male Wistar rats were assigned to three groups: control, untreated diabetes, and diabetes+cholecalciferol. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin, followed by oral administration of cholecalciferol (500 IU/kg) for 10 weeks in the treatment group. Aortic CML accumulation was determined by ELISA and immunohistochemical assays. OSI was assessed by measuring TAC and the level of total peroxides in the liver and serum using colorimetric assays.

RESULTS: Untreated diabetes was associated with significantly elevated CML levels in the aortic wall (19.5 ± 3.3 vs 10.2 ± 4.7 ng/mL), increased liver OSI (6.8 ± 1.9 vs 3.1 ± 0.7), and reduced serum TAC (0.4 ± 0.1 vs 0.8 ± 0.3 mmol Trolox/L), in comparison with the control group. Cholecalciferol significantly blocked the accumulation of CML in the aortic wall (10.4 ± 8.4 vs 19.5 ± 3.3 ng/mL), decreased liver OSI (4.2 ± 1.4 vs 6.8 ± 1.9), and improved serum TAC (1.0 ± 0.2 vs 0.4 ± 0.1 mmol Trolox/L), compared with the untreated diabetic group.

CONCLUSIONS: Streptozotocin-diabetes resulted in increased deposition of AGEs and increased oxidative stress in the serum and liver. Vitamin D supplementation may provide significant protection against oxidative stress-mediated vascular complications in diabetes.

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