Lifestyle correlates of self-reported sleep duration among Saudi adolescents: a multicentre school-based cross-sectional study

H M Al-Hazzaa, A O Musaiger, N A Abahussain, H I Al-Sobayel, D M Qahwaji
Child: Care, Health and Development 2014, 40 (4): 533-42

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are important determinants of adequate sleep among adolescents. However, findings on sleep duration relative to lifestyle factors are conflicting. Therefore, this study examined the association of self-reported sleep duration with physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents.

METHODS: A multicentre school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in three major cities in Saudi Arabia. The sample included 2868 secondary-school students (51.9% girls) aged 15-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. In addition to anthropometric measurements, sleep duration, physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits were assessed using self-reported questionnaire.

RESULTS: Several lifestyle factors were associated with sleep duration in adolescents. While controlling for some potential confounders, the findings showed that high screen time [>5 h/day; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.505, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.180-1.920, P = 0.001] and low (aOR = 1.290, 95% CI = 1.064-1.566, P = 0.010) to medium (aOR = 1.316, 95% CI = 1.075-1.611, P = 0.008) physical activity levels were significantly related to daily sleep of 8 h or longer. Furthermore, having low intake of breakfast (<3 day/week compared with 5 days or more per week) decreased the odd of having adequate sleep duration by a factor of 0.795 (95% CI = 0.667-0.947, P < 0.010).

CONCLUSIONS: Short sleep duration (<8 h/day) among Saudi adolescents 15-19 year olds was significantly associated with several lifestyle factors. Intervention programs aiming for improving sleeping habits among adolescents need to consider such potential association of lifestyle variables with sleep duration.

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