Lipid overloading during liver regeneration causes delayed hepatocyte DNA replication by increasing ER stress in mice with simple hepatic steatosis

Mina Hamano, Hisao Ezaki, Shinichi Kiso, Kunimaro Furuta, Mayumi Egawa, Takashi Kizu, Norihiro Chatani, Yoshihiro Kamada, Yuichi Yoshida, Tetsuo Takehara
Journal of Gastroenterology 2014, 49 (2): 305-16

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Impaired fatty liver regeneration has already been reported in many genetic modification models. However, in diet-induced simple hepatic steatosis, which showed similar phenotype with clinical pathology, whether liver regeneration is impaired or not remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated liver regeneration in mice with diet-induced simple hepatic steatosis, and focused on excess lipid accumulation occurring during liver regeneration.

METHODS: Mice were fed high fat diet (HFD) or control diet for 9-10 weeks. We analyzed intrahepatic lipid accumulation, DNA replication, and various signaling pathways including cell proliferation and ER stress during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. In addition, some of mice were pretreated with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical chaperone which alleviates ER stress, and then we estimated TUDCA effects on liver regeneration.

RESULTS: The peak of hepatocyte BrdU incorporation, the expression of proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein, and the expressions of cell cycle-related genes were observed in delayed time in HFD mice. The expression of phosphorylated Erk1/2 was also delayed in HFD mice. The amounts of liver triglyceride were at least twofold higher in HFD mice at each time point. Intrahepatic palmitic acid was increased especially in HFD mice. ER stress induced during liver regeneration was significantly higher in HFD mice. In HFD mice, pretreatment with TUDCA reduced ER stress and resulted in improvement of delayed liver regeneration.

CONCLUSION: In simple hepatic steatosis, lipid overloading occurring during liver regeneration might be caused ER stress and results in delayed hepatocyte DNA replication.

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