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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Preoperative assessment of high-risk candidates to predict survival after heart transplantation

P Christian Schulze, Jeffrey Jiang, Jonathan Yang, Faisal H Cheema, Kenneth Schaeffle, Tomoko S Kato, Maryjane Farr, Susan Restaino, Mario Deng, Mathew Maurer, Evelyn Horn, Farhana Latif, Paolo C Colombo, Ulrich Jorde, Nir Uriel, Jennifer Haythe, Rachel Bijou, Ron Drusin, Sun Hi Lee, Hiroo Takayama, Yoshifumi Naka, Donna M Mancini
Circulation. Heart Failure 2013, 6 (3): 527-34
23505300

BACKGROUND: Alternate waiting list strategies expand listing criteria for patients awaiting heart transplantation (HTx). We retrospectively analyzed clinical events and outcome of patients listed as high-risk recipients for HTx.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 822 adult patients who underwent HTx of whom 111 patients met high-risk criteria. Clinical data were collected from medical records and outcome factors calculated for 61 characteristics. Significant factors were summarized in a prognostic score. Age >65 years (67%) and amyloidosis (19%) were the most common reasons for alternate listing. High-risk recipients were older (63.2±10.2 versus 51.4±11.8 years; P<0.001), had more renal dysfunction, prior cancer, and smoking. Survival analysis revealed lower post-HTx survival in high-risk recipients (82.2% versus 87.4% at 1-year; 59.8% versus 76.3% at 5-year post-HTx; P=0.0005). Prior cerebral vascular accident, albumin <3.5 mg/dL, re-HTx, renal dysfunction (glomerular filtration rate <40 mL/min), and >2 prior sternotomies were associated with poor survival after HTx. A prognostic risk score (CARRS [CVA, albumin, re-HTx, renal dysfunction, and sternotomies]) derived from these factors stratified survival post-HTx in high-risk (3+ points) versus low-risk (0-2 points) patients (87.9% versus 52.9% at 1-year; 65.9% versus 28.4% at 5-year post-HTx; P<0.001). Low-risk alternate patients had survival comparable with regular patients (87.9% versus 87.0% at 1-year and 65.9% versus 74.5% at 5-year post-HTx; P=0.46).

CONCLUSIONS: High-risk patients had reduced survival compared with regular patients post-HTx. Among patients previously accepted for alternate donor listing, application of the CARRS score identifies patients with unacceptably high mortality after HTx and those with a survival similar to regularly listed patients.

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