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Seronegative antiphospholipid syndrome.

Rheumatology 2013 August
APS is an autoimmune disease that leads to arterial and/or venous thrombosis, recurrent pregnancy loss and persistently positive aPLs. Patients with clinical manifestations highly suggestive of APS but persistently negative conventional aPLs are classified as having seronegative APS. Ongoing research has revealed the existence of non-criteria antibodies proposed to be relevant to APS and that can be potentially included in the disease's classification criteria. We present a literature review on the most promising antibodies of this heterogeneous aPL family, which includes antibodies to a zwitterionic phospholipid, namely phosphatidylethanolamine, phospholipid-binding plasma proteins, phospholipid-protein complexes and anionic phospholipids other than cardiolipin. Although these molecules can increase the diagnostic yield of APS, their clinical relevance is still debatable and needs to be confirmed by interlaboratory efforts toward standardizing diagnostic tools, in addition to experimental data and larger longitudinal studies.

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