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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Incidence, predictors, and outcomes of aortic regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: meta-analysis and systematic review of literature

Ganesh Athappan, Eshan Patvardhan, E Murat Tuzcu, Lars Georg Svensson, Pedro A Lemos, Chiara Fraccaro, Giuseppe Tarantini, Jan-Malte Sinning, Georg Nickenig, Davide Capodanno, Corrado Tamburino, Azeem Latib, Antonio Colombo, Samir R Kapadia
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2013 April 16, 61 (15): 1585-95
23500308

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to establish the incidence, impact, and predictors of post-transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) aortic regurgitation (AR).

BACKGROUND: AR is an important limitation of TAVR with ill-defined predictors and unclear long-term impact on outcomes.

METHODS: Studies published between 2002 and 2012 with regard to TAVR were identified using an electronic search and reviewed using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird. From 3,871 initial citations, 45 studies reporting on 12,926 patients (CoreValve [Medtronic CV Luxembourg S.a.r.l., Tolochenaz, Switzerland] n = 5,261 and Edwards valve [Edwards Lifesciences, Santa Ana, California] n = 7,279) were included in the analysis of incidence and outcomes of post-TAVR AR.

RESULTS: The pooled estimate for moderate or severe AR post-TAVR was 11.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.6 to 14.1). Moderate or severe AR was more common with use of the CoreValve (16.0% vs. 9.1%, p = 0.005). The presence of moderate or severe AR post-TAVR increased mortality at 30 days (odds ratio: 2.95; 95% CI: 1.73 to 5.02) and 1 year (hazard ratio: 2.27; 95% CI: -1.84 to 2.81). Mild AR was also associated with an increased hazard ratio for mortality, 1.829 (95% CI: 1.005 to 3.329) that was overturned by sensitivity analysis. Twenty-five studies reported on predictors of post-TAVR AR. Implantation depth, valve undersizing, and Agatston calcium score (r = 0.47, p = 0.001) were identified as important predictors.

CONCLUSIONS: Moderate or severe aortic regurgitation is common after TAVR and an adverse prognostic indicator of short- and long-term survival. Incidence of moderate or severe AR is higher with use of the CoreValve. Mild AR may be associated with increased long-term mortality. Therefore, every effort should be made to minimize AR by a comprehensive pre-procedural planning and meticulous procedural execution.

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