Comparative study of IDH1 mutations in gliomas by immunohistochemistry and DNA sequencing

Shipra Agarwal, Mehar Chand Sharma, Prerana Jha, Pankaj Pathak, Vaishali Suri, Chitra Sarkar, Kunzang Chosdol, Ashish Suri, Shashank Sharad Kale, Ashok Kumar Mahapatra, Pankaj Jha
Neuro-oncology 2013, 15 (6): 718-26

BACKGROUND: Mutations involving isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH 1) occur in a high proportion of diffuse gliomas, with implications on diagnosis and prognosis. About 90% involve exon 4 at codon 132, replacing amino acid arginine with histidine (R132H). Rarer ones include R132C, R132S, R132G, R132L, R132V, and R132P. Most authors have used DNA-based methods to assess IDH1 status. Preliminary studies comparing imunohistochemistry (IHC) with IDH1-R132H mutation-specific antibodies have shown concordance with DNA sequencing and no cross-reactivity with wild-type IDH1 or other mutant proteins. The present study compares results of IHC with DNA sequencing in diffuse gliomas.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty diffuse gliomas with frozen tissue samples for DNA sequencing and adequate tissue in paraffin blocks for IHC using IDH1-R132H specific antibody were assessed for IDH1 mutations.

RESULTS: Concordance of findings between IHC and DNA sequencing was noted in 88% (44/50) cases. All 6 cases with discrepancy were immunopositive with DIA-H09 antibody. While in 3 of these 6 cases, DNA sequencing failed to reveal any mutations, R132L (arginine replaced by leucine) mutation was found in the rest 3 cases. Interestingly, of the immunopositive cases, 46.6% (14/30) showed immunostaining in only a fraction of tumor cells.

CONCLUSIONS: IHC is an easy and quick method of detecting IDH1-R132H mutations, but there may be some discrepancies between IHC and DNA sequencing. Although there were no false-negative cases, cross-reactivity with IDH1-R132L was seen in 3, a finding not reported thus far. Because of more universal availability of IHC over genetic testing, cross-reactivity and staining heterogeneity may have bearing over its use in detecting IDH1-R132H mutation in gliomas.

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