RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Kinematics of the ulnar carpus related to the volar intercalated segment instability pattern.

Anatomic dissections were done on 18 fresh and 4 preserved cadaver upper extremities to study the pathology of the carpal kinetics and to define the ligaments involved in the volar intercalated segment instability pattern. In a normal wrist, the scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrum all rotate so that their distal surfaces tilt palmarward with radial deviation. With ulnar deviation, all three carpal bones rotate dorsally. In the volar intercalated segment instability pattern, the lunate remains tilted volarly instead of rotating dorsally with ulnar deviation. In this study changes in carpal motion were observed after serially sectioning the ligaments supporting the ulnar carpus before and after loads were applied to the wrist to simulate the dynamic conditions of the wrist. The ligaments were then repaired to help identify which repairs restored normal carpal motion with radial and ulnar deviation with and without axial loads. In these anatomic studies the volar intercalated segment instability pattern occurred when there was instability between both hamate and triquetrum and between the lunate and triquetrum. The main ligaments involved in this instability appeared to be the ulnar half of the volar arcuate ligament and the luno-triquetral ligament as division of these ligaments, particularly under axial loads, produced the most significant change in lunate rotation (p less than 0.05). Similarly repair of these two ligaments produced the most significant correction of lunate position particularly with maintenance of dorsal rotation of the lunate during ulnar deviation under axial loads (p less than 0.01).

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