Intermediate-fraction neoadjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer

Tiancheng Zhan, Jin Gu, Ming Li, Changzheng Du
Diseases of the Colon and Rectum 2013, 56 (4): 422-32

BACKGROUND: In China, standard neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy has not been well accepted, not only because of financial constraints but also because of the poorly-tolerated long duration of the regimen.

OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of a modified neoadjuvant radiation regimen on the prognosis of rectal cancer patients in China.

DESIGN: This was a nonrandomized cohort study evaluating outcomes of patients who chose to undergo preoperative radiotherapy compared with those who chose not to undergo preoperative radiotherapy (controls).

SETTINGS: The study was carried out in Peking University Cancer Hospital, a tertiary care cancer center in China.

PATIENTS: Records of patients with locally advanced, mid-to-low rectal cancer who underwent total mesorectal excision at Peking University Cancer Hospital from 2001 through 2005 were analyzed in this study.

INTERVENTION: Patients who chose preoperative radiotherapy received a total dose of 30 Gy delivered in 10 once-daily fractions of 3.0 Gy each, with at least a 14-day delay of surgery after delivery of the last fraction.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tumor downstaging was evaluated. Local recurrence, distant metastases, and disease-free and overall survival were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method.

RESULTS: A total of 101 patients accepted and 162 patients declined the modified preoperative radiotherapy regimen. Of the 101 patients receiving preoperative radiotherapy, 5 (5%) had a complete response, and 50 (50%) achieved TNM downstaging. The local recurrence rate was 5% with preoperative radiotherapy and 18% in the control groups (p = 0.02). Within the preoperative radiotherapy group, 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were significantly higher in patients with T-, N-, or TNM-downstaging than in patients without downstaging. Evaluation of literature reports indicated that clinical safety and effectiveness of the modified protocol are comparable to results of standard neoadjuvant procedures.

LIMITATIONS: The allocation to study groups was not randomized, and patient self-selection may have introduced bias, particularly because patients with greater financial means were more likely to choose to undergo the preoperative radiotherapy regimen.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared with surgery alone, this modified preoperative radiotherapy regimen is associated with significantly reduced local recurrence and complication rates, with improved survival in patients who show downstaging. The modified protocol offers a clinical outcome equivalent to standard preoperative radiotherapy regimens while offering an alternative for increasing the flexibility of preoperative radiation regimens in China.

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